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Beijing, China

PART 1:  Definition of Megacity 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Brinkhoff population (2010) 13,600,000
Population 13,851,000 16,010,000 20,186,000
Population growth rate 2001-11 45.74
 GDP (millions)  370,800 811,780 1,625,190  Chinese yuan 
 >GDP (PPP adjusted US dollars, millions)  112,364 231,937 386,950
 *10-year growth rate in GDP 2001 to 2011 (%)  244.37
Formal gov't for metro area (yes/no)? Y
> 1 coordinating bodies (yes/no)? Y
PART 2:  Biophysical Characteristics 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Land area (km2) 16,411.00 16,411.00 16,411.00
Urbanized area (km2) 3,377.15
Heating degree days 2,955.00
Cooling degree days 218.00
Annnual precipitation (mm) 720.60
Annual solar radiation (k Wh/m2)
Building gross floor area (m2) - total 377,165,000 570,690,000 809,860,000 total
>total per capita 27.23 35.65 40.12
>residential 201,095,000 326,650,000 441,130,000
>residential per capita 14.52 20.40 21.85
>commercial & institutional 176,070,000 244,040,000 368,730,000 non-residential
>industrial
PART 3:  Urban Metabolism 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Energy (Stationary)
Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable
Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid 36,319.00 57,535.00 80,686.00
Electrical line losses (GWh) 3,511.00 4,364.00 4,682.00
*Total electricity consumption (GWh) 36,319.00 57,535.00 80,686.00
*Total electricity consumption (TJ) 130,748.40 207,126.00 290,469.60
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 122.16
Natural gas (TJ)
Fuel oil (TJ)
Coal (TJ)
Biomass/biofuels (TJ)
Other 622,978.85 728,408.16 652,342.88 total non-electric sources (Tj)
*Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) 622,978.85 728,408.16 652,342.88
*Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ) 295,511.33
Energy (Mobile) includes jet fuel; see survey notes
Gasoline (TJ) 59,375.28 119,372.81 167,783.49
Diesel (TJ) 43,940.89 75,285.05 102,603.65
Jet fuel (TJ)
Marine fuel (TJ)
Other 62.72 fuel oil
53,232.27 99,069.61 185,739.38 kerosene
*Total energy consumption (transportation) excl. marine/jet fuel (TJ) 156,548.43 293,727.47 456,189.24
*10-year growth rate 191.40
*Total energy consumption (stationary + mobile) (TJ) 910,275.69 1,229,261.63 1,399,001.73
*2011 total 1,399,001.73
*2006 total 1,229,261.63
**2001 total 910,275.69
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 53.69
Water
Consumption (ML) -- excluding line losses 3,890,000 3,430,000 3,600,000
Line losses (ML) 595,170 524,790 550,800
>Line losses as a percentage of consumption (%) 15.3% 15.3% 15.3%
*Total water consumption (ML) excluding line losses 3,890,000 3,430,000 3,600,000
*Total water consumption (ML) including line losses 4,485,170 3,954,790 4,150,800
Production (ML) 3,890,000 3,430,000 3,600,000
Production - surface water (ML) 1,170,000 570,000 480,000
Production - ground water (ML) 2,720,000 2,220,000 1,880,000
*10-year growth rate in water consumption 2001-2011 (%) -7.46
Wastewater
Volume (ML) 865,415 1,292,100 1,455,430
Loading (kt BOD) 170.00 109.87 193.20 kt COD not BOD
Waste
Solid waste disposal - land (Kt) 4,683.00 4,295.70
Waste incineration (Kt) 98 944.6
*Total solid waste disposal (kt) 4,781.00 5,240.30
*10-year growth rate in solid waste disposal 2001-2011 (%) #DIV/0!
196.00 991 (Other) compost
Electricity sources
Coal (%) 89.51 62.29 43.54
Oil (%) 6.46 14.09 9.84
Natural gas (%) 0.23 0 27.8
Hydropower (%) 3.8 21.07 12.29
Nuclear (%) 0 0 0
Off-site wind (%) 0 2.55 6.16 includes solar
Off-site solar (%)
Other
GHG emissions factor (t CO2e / GWh) 952.86 748.8 608.51
Electricity consumption (2011)
residential (%) 17.9
commercial/institutional (%) 11.34
industrial (%) 29.8
transportation (%) 7.7
other
Stationary energy consumption (2011)
residential (%) 32.1
commercial/institutional (%) 13.2
industrial (%) 32.0
other
Materials (2011)
Building materials
Cement
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt) 7,273.00 10,163.00 9,232.90
>consumption (Kt)
Steel
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt) 8,090.00 12,694.00 2,895.80
>consumption (Kt)
Other
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Food
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt) 6,376.00
>consumption (Kt) 4,596.00
Other
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
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