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Istanbul, Turkey

PART 1:  Definition of Megacity 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Brinkhoff population (2010) 12,800,000
Population 8,803,468 11,622,000 13,483,052
Population growth rate 2001-11 53.16
 GDP (millions)  18,690 87,165 140,817  USD 
 >GDP (PPP adjusted US dollars, millions)  18,690 87,165 140,817
 *10-year growth rate in GDP 2001 to 2011 (%)  653.44
Formal gov't for metro area (yes/no)? Y
> 1 coordinating bodies (yes/no)? Y
PART 2:  Biophysical Characteristics 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Land area (km2) 5,461.00
Urbanized area (km2) 5,343.00
Heating degree days 1,996.00
Cooling degree days 123.00
Annnual precipitation (mm) 852.00
Annual solar radiation (k Wh/m2) 1,450.00
Building gross floor area (m2) - total
>total per capita
>residential 148,929,820.00
>residential per capita 11.05
>commercial & institutional
>industrial
PART 3:  Urban Metabolism 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Energy (Stationary)
Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable 0.00 300.00 3,066.00
Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid 15,406.07 24,000.00 35,182.73
Electrical line losses (GWh) 1,848.00 2,200.00 2,000.00
*Total electricity consumption (GWh) 15,406.07 24,300.00 38,248.73
*Total electricity consumption (TJ) 55,461.85 87,480.00 137,695.43
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 148.27
Natural gas (TJ) 68,000.00 140,000.00 208,000.00
Fuel oil (TJ) 153,684.00 59,494.00 24,618.00
Coal (TJ) 73,269.00 27,622.00 25,497.00
Biomass/biofuels (TJ) 26,109.00 28,200.00
Other
*Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) 294,953.00 253,225.00 286,315.00
*Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ) 28,631.50 too low?
Energy (Mobile)
Gasoline (TJ) 24,545.00 33,850.00 23,131.00
Diesel (TJ) 31,736.00 35,901.00 45,259.00
Jet fuel (TJ)
Marine fuel (TJ) 4,816.00
Other 11,447.00 7,795.00 LPG
*Total energy consumption (transportation) excl. marine/jet fuel (TJ) 56,281.00 81,198.00 76,185.00
*10-year growth rate 35.37
*Total energy consumption (stationary + mobile) (TJ) 406,695.85 421,903.00 500,195.43
*2011 total 500,195.43
*2006 total 421,903.00
**2001 total 406,695.85
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 22.99
Water
Consumption (ML) -- excluding line losses 642,000.00 732,000.00 823,749.00
Line losses (ML) 243,960.00 212,280.00 148,274.00
>Line losses as a percentage of consumption (%) 38.0% 29.0% 18.0%
*Total water consumption (ML) excluding line losses 642,000.00 732,000.00 823,749.00
*Total water consumption (ML) including line losses 885,960.00 944,280.00 972,023.00
Production (ML)
Production - surface water (ML)
Production - ground water (ML)
*10-year growth rate in water consumption 2001-2011 (%) 28.31
Wastewater
Volume (ML) 105,000.00 150,000.00 183,900.00
Loading (kt BOD)
Waste
Solid waste disposal - land (Kt) 3,465.39 4,575.59 5,292.50 too large?
Waste incineration (Kt) 3,051.21 3,851.21 4,498.63 too large?
*Total solid waste disposal (kt) 6,516.60 8,426.80 9,791.13
*10-year growth rate in solid waste disposal 2001-2011 (%) 50.25
Electricity sources
Coal (%) 0 0 0
Oil (%) 90 32 30
Natural gas (%) 10 68 65
Hydropower (%) 0 0 0
Nuclear (%) 0 0 0
Off-site wind (%) 0 0 4.8
Off-site solar (%) 0 0 0.2
Other
GHG emissions factor (t CO2e / GWh) 517.179 631.00683
Electricity consumption (2011)
residential (%) 34
commercial/institutional (%) 28
industrial (%) 31
transportation (%) 7
other
Stationary energy consumption (2011)
residential (%) 10.0 too low?
commercial/institutional (%) 0.0
industrial (%) 0.0
other
Materials (2011)
Building materials
Cement
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt) 13,212.25
>consumption (Kt) 1,705.95
Steel
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Other
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Food
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Other
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
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