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Karachi, Pakistan

PART 1:  Definition of Megacity 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Brinkhoff population (2010) 16,200,000
Population 12,000,000 13,500,000 15,500,000
Population growth rate 2001-11 29.17
 GDP (millions)  70,000 75,000 80,000 USD 
 >GDP (PPP adjusted US dollars, millions)  70,000 75,000 80,000
 *10-year growth rate in GDP 2001 to 2011 (%)  14.29
Formal gov't for metro area (yes/no)? Y
> 1 coordinating bodies (yes/no)? Y
PART 2:  Biophysical Characteristics 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Land area (km2) 3,527.00
Urbanized area (km2) 2,000.00
Heating degree days 153.00
Cooling degree days 1,149.00
Annnual precipitation (mm) 214.00
Annual solar radiation (k Wh/m2) 1,944.44
Building gross floor area (m2) - total 401,306,871.90
>total per capita 25.89
>residential 285,910,659.00
>residential per capita 18.45
>commercial & institutional 34,811,089.72
>industrial 80,585,123.18
PART 3:  Urban Metabolism 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Energy (Stationary)
Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable
Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid 11,964.00 20,690.00 years 2003 & 2010
Electrical line losses (GWh)
*Total electricity consumption (GWh) 11,964.00 0.00 20,690.00
*Total electricity consumption (TJ) 43,070.40 0.00 74,484.00
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 72.94 7-yr growth rate
Natural gas (TJ) 55,585.04 scaled from national data
Fuel oil (TJ) 8,522.41 scaled from national data
Coal (TJ) 15,462.65 scaled from national data
Biomass/biofuels (TJ) 113,505.85 scaled from national data
Other
*Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) 0.00 0.00 193,075.94
*Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ)
Energy (Mobile)
Gasoline (TJ)
Diesel (TJ)
Jet fuel (TJ)
Marine fuel (TJ)
Other 10,436.00 natural gas; scaled from nat. data
39,427.97 oil; scaled from nat. data
*Total energy consumption (transportation) excl. marine/jet fuel (TJ) 0.00 0.00 49,863.97
*10-year growth rate
*Total energy consumption (stationary + mobile) (TJ) 43,070.40 0.00 317,423.91
*2011 total 317,423.91
*2006 total 0.00
**2001 total 43,070.40
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 636.99
Water
Consumption (ML) -- excluding line losses 190,764.00 284,632.00 378,500.00
Line losses (ML) 75,700.00 113,550.00 151,400.00
>Line losses as a percentage of consumption (%) 39.7% 39.9% 40.0%
*Total water consumption (ML) excluding line losses 190,764.00 284,632.00 378,500.00
*Total water consumption (ML) including line losses 266,464.00 398,182.00 529,900.00
Production (ML)
Production - surface water (ML) 188,722,721.52
Production - ground water (ML) 29,603,564.16
*10-year growth rate in water consumption 2001-2011 (%) 98.41
Wastewater
Volume (ML) 161,241.00 168,811.00 172,596.00 not sure?
Loading (kt BOD) 0.60
Waste
Solid waste disposal - land (Kt) 400.00 900.00 1,600.00 not sure?
Waste incineration (Kt) 109.50 not sure?
*Total solid waste disposal (kt) 400.00 1,009.50 1,600.00
*10-year growth rate in solid waste disposal 2001-2011 (%) 300.00
Electricity sources
Coal (%) 0.4 7.3 0.43
Oil (%) 39.5 33.81 41.59
Natural gas (%) 32 64.59 55.38
Hydropower (%) 25.2 12.6 33.6
Nuclear (%) 2.9 1.6 1.98
Off-site wind (%) 0.346 million MW for 2011
Off-site solar (%) 0.29 million MW for 2011
Other
GHG emissions factor (t CO2e / GWh) 1.3 1.9 t CO2e/cap
Electricity consumption (2011)
residential (%) 42.27
commercial/institutional (%) 10.36 commercial
industrial (%) 34.22
transportation (%)
other 11.1 bulk supply + other
0.81 public lighting
1.24 agriculture
Stationary energy consumption (2011)
residential (%) ?
commercial/institutional (%) ?
industrial (%) ?
other
Materials (2011)
Building materials
Cement
>net import (Kt) 768,220.00
>production (Kt) 44,000.00
>consumption (Kt) 2,088.00
Steel
>net import (Kt) 3,200.00
>production (Kt) 400.00
>consumption (Kt) 7,000.00
Other
>net import (Kt) 5,300.00 bricks and tiles
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Food
>net import (Kt) see below
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Other
>net import (Kt) 3,579.00 rice
>production (Kt) 6,900.00
>consumption (Kt) 2,800.00
net import (Kt) 1,820.23 wheat
production (Kt) 23,310.80
consumption (Kt) 21,700.00
net import (Kt) 130.83 maize
production (Kt) 3,706.91
consumption (Kt) 607.00
net import (Kt) 0.00 soybean
production (Kt) 0.05
consumption (Kt) 0.01
net import (Kt) pulp and paper
production (Kt) 900.00
consumption (Kt) 434.74
net import (Kt) plastic
production (Kt) 624.20
consumption (Kt) 48.05
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