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Kolkata, India

PART 1:  Definition of Megacity 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Brinkhoff population (2010) 16,300,000
Population 13,205,697 na 14,112,536
Population growth rate 2001-11 6.87
 GDP (millions)  565,262 1,020,888 1,610,996 Indian rupee; 2011 value projected from national GDP growth rate 
 >GDP (PPP adjusted US dollars, millions)  41,563 67,608 81,363
 *10-year growth rate in GDP 2001 to 2011 (%)  95.76
Formal gov't for metro area (yes/no)? Y
> 1 coordinating bodies (yes/no)? Y
PART 2:  Biophysical Characteristics 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Land area (km2) 1,886.67
Urbanized area (km2) 185.00 Kolkata 'city'; not KMA
Heating degree days 96.00
Cooling degree days 1,076.00
Annnual precipitation (mm) 1,241.20
Annual solar radiation (k Wh/m2) ?
Building gross floor area (m2) - total na
>total per capita
>residential
>residential per capita
>commercial & institutional
>industrial
PART 3:  Urban Metabolism 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Energy (Stationary)
Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable 0.00 0.00 0.00
Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid na 9889.39 12383.02 2001 figure for Kolkata city, not KMA
Electrical line losses (GWh)
*Total electricity consumption (GWh) 9,889.39 12,383.02
*Total electricity consumption (TJ) 35,601.80 44,578.87
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%)
Natural gas (TJ) ~0 ~0 ~0
Fuel oil (TJ) see 'other' (below)
Coal (TJ) na na na
Biomass/biofuels (TJ) ~0 ~0 ~0
Other
214.71 638.33 89.94 diesel (TJ)
908.57 2,869.95 1,441.33 furnace oil (TJ)
50.33 667.57 37.45 lubes & greases (TJ)
2,159.07 5,383.38 4,759.42 LPG (bulk + packed) (TJ)
659.92 230.42 20.32 mineral oil (TJ)
*Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) 3,992.60 9,789.64 6,348.46
*Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ) 5,923.11
Energy (Mobile)
Gasoline (TJ) 545.02 1,170.82 2,519.41
Diesel (TJ) 1,871.07 5,736.96 9,580.34
Jet fuel (TJ) 144.90 4,028.94 6,615.76
Marine fuel (TJ)
Other 968.90 natural gas; scaled from nat. data
51.43 324.39 LPG (auto) (TJ)
2,169.81 3,824.49 4,553.54 kerosene (TJ)
*Total energy consumption (transportation) excl. marine/jet fuel (TJ) 4,585.89 10,783.71 17,946.58
*10-year growth rate 291.34
*Total energy consumption (stationary + mobile) (TJ) 8,578.49 56,175.15 68,873.91
*2011 total 68,873.91
*2006 total 56,175.15
**2001 total 8,578.49
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 702.87
Water
Consumption (ML) -- excluding line losses 443,840.00 1,133,540.00 incl. private H2O tapping; unreliable data
Line losses (ML) 155,344.00 249,378.80
>Line losses as a percentage of consumption (%) 35.0% 22.0%
*Total water consumption (ML) excluding line losses 0.00 443,840.00 1,133,540.00
*Total water consumption (ML) including line losses 0.00 599,184.00 1,382,918.80
Production (ML) 387,703.00 394,200.00 768,470.00
Production - surface water (ML) na 350,838.00 582,451.00
Production - ground water (ML) na 43,362.00 186,019.00
*10-year growth rate in water consumption 2001-2011 (%) #DIV/0!
Wastewater
Volume (ML) na 63,145.00 78,256.00
Loading (kt BOD) na na 27.70 354 mg/litre
Waste
Solid waste disposal - land (Kt) 1,065.00 1,067.00 1,070.00 years 2003, 2005, 2013
Waste incineration (Kt) 0.00 0.00 0.00 facilities expected to operate soon
*Total solid waste disposal (kt) 1,065.00 1,067.00 1,070.00
*10-year growth rate in solid waste disposal 2001-2011 (%) 0.47
Electricity sources
Coal (%) 99.99 99.99 99.99
Oil (%) 0 0 0
Natural gas (%) 0 0 0
Hydropower (%) 0 0 0
Nuclear (%) 0 0 0
Off-site wind (%) 0 0 0
Off-site solar (%) 0 0 0
Other
GHG emissions factor (t CO2e / GWh) ? 0.846 t/MWh (coal)
Electricity consumption (2011)
residential (%) 46.74
commercial/institutional (%) 17.34
industrial (%) 27.86
transportation (%) 0.04 railway
other 0.4 public water works and sewage pump
0.42 public lighting
1.21 agricultural irrigation and dewatering
0.16 other
Stationary energy consumption (2011) energy source is LPG
residential (%) 93.3
commercial/institutional (%)
industrial (%) 0.4
other 6.4 transportation
Materials (2011)
Building materials poor data quality
Cement
>net import (Kt) na
>production (Kt) 0.00
>consumption (Kt) 7,758.52
Steel
>net import (Kt) na
>production (Kt) 0.00
>consumption (Kt) 2,652.77
Other
>net import (Kt) na aluminum
>production (Kt) 0.00
>consumption (Kt) 72.10
>net import (Kt) na paints & ceramic tiles
>production (Kt) 0.00
>consumption (Kt) 241.91
Food
>net import (Kt) see below
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Other
>net import (Kt) na cereals
>production (Kt) na
>consumption (Kt) 1,836.16
net import (Kt) na pulses and pulse products
production (Kt) na
consumption (Kt) 200.04
net import (Kt) na vegetables
production (Kt) na
consumption (Kt) 1,778.22
net import (Kt) na fruits
production (Kt) na
consumption (Kt) 1,065.60
net import (Kt) na meat
production (Kt) na
consumption (Kt) 732.60
net import (Kt) na dairy
production (Kt) na
consumption (Kt) 1,385.28
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