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London, United Kingdom

PART 1:  Definition of Megacity 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Brinkhoff population (2010)     12,400,000  
Population 7,322,400 7,546,600 8,173,941  
Population growth rate 2001-11     11.63  
 GDP (millions) 168,410 225,270 270,830 GBD (pounds); 2010
 >GDP (PPP adjusted US dollars, millions)  280,683 375,450 386,900  
 *10-year growth rate in GDP 2001 to 2011 (%)  37.84      
Formal gov't for metro area (yes/no)?     Y  
> 1 coordinating bodies (yes/no)?     Y  
         
PART 2:  Biophysical Characteristics  2001  2006  2011  Comments
Land area (km2)     1,594.70  
Urbanized area (km2)     560.10  
Heating degree days     2,333.00  
Cooling degree days     6.00  
Annnual precipitation (mm)     601.00  
Annual solar radiation (k Wh/m2)     1,050.00  
Building gross floor area (m2) - total   214,280,830    
>total per capita   28.39    
>residential   138,961,340   year 2005
>residential per capita   18.41    
>commercial & institutional   75,319,490   year 2005
>industrial        
         
PART 3:  Urban Metabolism 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Energy (Stationary)        
Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable        
Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid 41,590.00 42,843.37 39,945.74  
Electrical line losses (GWh) 3,862.75 3,426.25 3,466.26  
*Total electricity consumption (GWh) 41,590.00 42,843.37 39,945.74  
*Total electricity consumption (TJ) 149,724.00 154,236.13 143,804.67  
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) -3.95      
Natural gas (TJ) 320,814.00 277,020.36 230,094.00  
Fuel oil (TJ) 142,888.40 128,401.56 156,548.90  
Coal (TJ)   3.24    
Biomass/biofuels (TJ)   361.44    
Other        
         
*Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) 463,702.40 405,786.60 386,642.90  
*Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ)     142,284.59  
         
Energy (Mobile)        
Gasoline (TJ) 112,661.55 97,568.14 73,729.17  
Diesel (TJ) 85,101.94 106,773.87 109,226.49  
Jet fuel (TJ) 61,650.00 1,770.60 1,556.20  
Marine fuel (TJ) 4,500.00 9,450.00 1,771.20  
Other        
         
*Total energy consumption (transportation) excl. marine/jet fuel (TJ) 197,763.49 204,342.01 182,955.66  
*10-year growth rate -7.49      
*Total energy consumption (stationary + mobile) (TJ) 811,189.89 764,364.74 713,403.23  
*2011 total     713,403.23  
*2006 total   764,364.74    
*2001 total 811,189.89      
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) -12.05      
         
Water        
Consumption (ML) -- excluding line losses 503,150.00 512,382.00 558,319.00  
Line losses (ML) 159,887.00 210,378.00 148,947.00  
>Line losses as a percentage of consumption (%) 31.8% 41.1% 26.7%  
*Total water consumption (ML) excluding line losses 503,150.00 512,382.00 558,319.00  
*Total water consumption (ML) including line losses 663,037.00 722,760.00 707,266.00  
Production (ML)        
Production - surface water (ML)        
Production - ground water (ML)        
*10-year growth rate in water consumption 2001-2011 (%) 10.96      
         
Wastewater        
Volume (ML)        
Loading (kt BOD)        
         
Waste        
Solid waste disposal - land (Kt) 3,207.00 2,692.00 1,696.00  
Waste incineration (Kt) 886.00 767.00 896.00  
*Total solid waste disposal (kt) 4,093.00 3,459.00 2,592.00  
*10-year growth rate in solid waste disposal 2001-2011 (%) -36.67      
         
Electricity sources        
Coal (%) 40 44.8 37.3  
Oil (%) 1.1 1.2 0.5  
Natural gas (%) 31.1 31.1 31.1  
Hydropower (%) 0.4 0.4 0.6  
Nuclear (%) 27.2 21.9 23.1  
Off-site wind (%)     1.6  
Off-site solar (%)        
Other     1.9  
GHG emissions factor (t CO2e / GWh) 487.37 511.17 457.47  
         
Electricity consumption (2011)        
residential (%)     12.4  
commercial/institutional (%)     11.1  
industrial (%)     11.4  
transportation (%)     0.5  
other     3.1 energy industry
      0.3 exports
      61.3 conv/trans/distr losses
         
Stationary energy consumption (2011)        
residential (%)     23.6  
commercial/institutional (%)     13.2  
industrial (%)     20.8  
other     42.4 transport
         
Materials (2011)        
        other materials given
Building materials       year 2000
Cement        
>net import (Kt) 43.57      
>production (Kt) 1,459.78      
>consumption (Kt) 1,503.35      
Steel        
>net import (Kt)        
>production (Kt)        
>consumption (Kt) 642.00      
Other        
>net import (Kt)        
>production (Kt)        
>consumption (Kt)        
         
Food        
>net import (Kt) 1,315.74      
>production (Kt) 5,589.72      
>consumption (Kt) 6,900.03      
Other        
>net import (Kt) 1,182.39     pulp & paper
>production (Kt) 2,026.63      
>consumption (Kt) 3,209.02      
         
net import (Kt) 154.87     plastic
production (Kt) 535.90      
consumption (Kt) 690.76      
        rubber also given
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