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Paris, France

PART 1:  Definition of Megacity 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Brinkhoff population (2010) 10,400,000
Population 11,114,790 11,532,400 11,852,851
Population growth rate 2001-11 6.64
 GDP (millions) 420,890 501,000 607,439  Euros 
 >GDP (PPP adjusted US dollars, millions)  467,656 556,667 674,932
 *10-year growth rate in GDP 2001 to 2011 (%)  44.32
Formal gov't for metro area (yes/no)? N
> 1 coordinating bodies (yes/no)? Y
 
PART 2:  Biophysical Characteristics 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Land area (km2) 12,011.00
Urbanized area (km2) 2,535.00
Heating degree days 2,157.00
Cooling degree days 24.00
Annnual precipitation (mm) 637.40
Annual solar radiation (k Wh/m2) 1,117.00
Building gross floor area (m2) - total 951,000,000.00
>total per capita 80.23
>residential 350,000,000.00
>residential per capita 29.53
>commercial & institutional 196,000,000.00
>industrial 405,000,000.00
 
PART 3:  Urban Metabolism 2001 2006 2011 Comments
  years 2002 & 2009
Energy (Stationary)
Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable 54.00 57.00
Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid 66,062.00 65,546.00 68,215.00
Electrical line losses (GWh) 11,500.00
*Total electricity consumption (GWh) 66,116.00 65,603.00 68,215.00
*Total electricity consumption (TJ) 238,017.60 236,170.80 245,574.00
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 3.17
Natural gas (TJ) 266,366.00 285,574.00 242,676.00
Fuel oil (TJ) 52,634.00 52,080.00 40,992.00 yr 2007
Coal (TJ) 1,428.00 1,092.00 1,638.00
Biomass/biofuels (TJ) 3,612.00 12,012.00
Other
 
*Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) 320,428.00 342,358.00 297,318.00
*Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ) 255,693.48
 
Energy (Mobile)
Gasoline (TJ) 86,052.00 68,208.00 68,208.00 2006 & 2011 assumed equal
Diesel (TJ) 127,010.00 138,096.00 138,096.00 2006 & 2011 assumed equal
Jet fuel (TJ) 200,000.00 253,000.00 253,000.00 2006 & 2011 assumed equal
Marine fuel (TJ)
Other
 
*Total energy consumption (transportation) excl. marine/jet fuel (TJ) 213,062.00 206,304.00 206,304.00
*10-year growth rate -3.17
*Total energy consumption (stationary + mobile) (TJ) 771,507.60 784,832.80 749,196.00 -22,311.60
*2011 total 749,196.00
*2006 total 784,832.80
*2001 total 771,507.60
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) -2.89
 
Water
Consumption (ML) -- excluding line losses 1,615,054.36
Line losses (ML) 97,243.00
>Line losses as a percentage of consumption (%) 6.0%
*Total water consumption (ML) excluding line losses 0.00 0.00 1,615,054.36
*Total water consumption (ML) including line losses 0.00 0.00 1,712,297.36
Production (ML) 1,736,840.13
Production - surface water (ML) 1,380,409.76
Production - ground water (ML) 356,430.37
*10-year growth rate in water consumption 2001-2011 (%)
 
Wastewater
Volume (ML) 1,250,835.00
Loading (kt BOD) 122.80 180.20 66.50
 
Waste
Solid waste disposal - land (Kt) 1,215.00 2,635.00 yr 2002 and 2010
Waste incineration (Kt) 3,536.00 3,898.00 yr 2002 and 2010
*Total solid waste disposal (kt) 4,751.00 0.00 6,533.00
*10-year growth rate in solid waste disposal 2001-2011 (%) 37.51
 
Electricity sources
Coal (%) 3 5
Oil (%) 1 2
Natural gas (%) 2 4
Hydropower (%) 15 12
Nuclear (%) 76 78
Off-site wind (%) 0 0 0.3
Off-site solar (%) 0 0
Other 2 3 waste & others
GHG emissions factor (t CO2e / GWh) 84.41 yr 2004
 
Electricity consumption (2011)
residential (%) 41
commercial/institutional (%) 42
industrial (%) 13
transportation (%) 4
other
 
Stationary energy consumption (2011)
residential (%) 56.0
commercial/institutional (%) 30.0
industrial (%) 15.0 incl. 1% of agric. consump.
other
 
Materials (2011)
Building materials
Cement
>net import (Kt) 1,615.00 yr 2008
>production (Kt) 700.00 yr 2008
>consumption (Kt) 2,315.00 yr 2012
Steel
>net import (Kt) 211.00 yr 2003
>production (Kt) 0.00 yr 2003
>consumption (Kt) 211.00 yr 2003
Other total all bldg materials
>net import (Kt) 12,132.00  
>production (Kt) 16,990.00
>consumption (Kt) 29,122.00
Food yr 2006
>net import (Kt) 4,578.00
>production (Kt) 6,375.00
>consumption (Kt) 10,953.00
Other total materials (yr 2003)
>net import (Kt) 55,950.00
>production (Kt) 23,540.00
>consumption (Kt) 79,490.00
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