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Shanghai, China

PART 1:  Definition of Megacity 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Brinkhoff population (2010) 18,400,000
Population 16,683,300 19,641,100 23,474,600
Population growth rate 2001-11 40.71
GDP (millions)  521,012 1,057,224 1,919,569  Chinese yuan 
>GDP (PPP adjusted US dollars, millions)  157,882 302,064 457,040
*10-year growth rate in GDP 2001 to 2011 (%)  189.48
Formal gov't for metro area (yes/no)? Y
> 1 coordinating bodies (yes/no)? Y
PART 2:  Biophysical Characteristics 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Land area (km2) 6,340.50 6,340.50 6,340.50
Urbanized area (km2)
Heating degree days 1,664.00
Cooling degree days 370.00
Annnual precipitation (mm) 1,009.10
Annual solar radiation (k Wh/m2) 1,219.20
Building gross floor area (m2) - total 383,240,000 702,820,000 980,920,000 total
>total per capita 22.97 35.78 41.79
>residential 234,750,000 408,570,000 550,770,000
>residential per capita 14.07 20.80 23.46
>commercial & institutional 148,490,000 294,250,000 430,150,000 non-residential
>industrial
PART 3:  Urban Metabolism 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Energy (Stationary)
Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable
Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid 56,130.00 93,864.00 126,913
Electrical line losses (GWh) 3,169.00 5,151.00 7,049
*Total electricity consumption (GWh) 56,130.00 93,864.00 126,913
*Total electricity consumption (TJ) 202,068.00 337,910.40 456,886.80
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 126.11
Natural gas (TJ)
Fuel oil (TJ)
Coal (TJ)
Biomass/biofuels (TJ)
Other 757,084.16 1,064,682.56 978,551.33 total non-electric sources (Tj)
*Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) 757,084.16 1,064,682.56 978,551.33
*Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ)
Energy (Mobile) includes marine & jet fuel; see survey notes
Gasoline (TJ) 59,148.03 115,743.08 203,320.55
Diesel (TJ) 96,133.34 156,933.77 223,581.78
Jet fuel (TJ)
Marine fuel (TJ)
Other 22,350.65 64,095.56 81,411.57 fuel oil
25,381.15 118,433.89 175,109.70 kerosene
*Total energy consumption (transportation) excl. marine/jet fuel (TJ) 203,013.18 455,206.30 683,423.60
*10-year growth rate 236.64
*Total energy consumption (stationary + mobile) (TJ) 1,162,165.34 1,857,799.26 2,118,861.73
*2011 total 2,118,861.73
*2006 total 1,857,799.26
**2001 total 1,162,165.34
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 82.32
Water
Consumption (ML) -- excluding line losses 9,482,600 8,286,650
Line losses (ML) 1,673,400 1,462,350
>Line losses as a percentage of consumption (%) 17.6% 17.6%
*Total water consumption (ML) excluding line losses 0.00 9,482,600
*Total water consumption (ML) including line losses 10,629,000 11,156,000 9,749,000
Production (ML) 11,036,000 11,857,000 9,749,000
Production - surface water (ML) 10,963,000 11,800,000 9,735,000
Production - ground water (ML) 73,000 57,000 14,000
*10-year growth rate in water consumption 2001-2011 (%)
Wastewater
Volume (ML) 1,950,000 2,216,000 2,279,000
Loading (kt BOD) 305.00 301.98 249.00 kt COD not BOD
Waste
Solid waste disposal - land (Kt) 2,088.00 3,627.10
Waste incineration (Kt) 1,145.00 592.30
*Total solid waste disposal (kt) 3,233.00 4,219.40
*10-year growth rate in solid waste disposal 2001-2011 (%)
579.00 78 (Other) compost
Electricity sources
Coal (%)
Oil (%)
Natural gas (%)
Hydropower (%)
Nuclear (%)
Off-site wind (%)
Off-site solar (%)
Other
GHG emissions factor (t CO2e / GWh)
Electricity consumption (2011)
residential (%)
commercial/institutional (%)
industrial (%)
transportation (%)
other
Stationary energy consumption (2011)
residential (%)
commercial/institutional (%)
industrial (%)
other
Materials (2011)
Building materials
Cement
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt) 8,182.80
>consumption (Kt)
Steel
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt) 24,828.10
>consumption (Kt)
Other
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Food
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Other
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
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