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Shenzhen, China

PART 1:  Definition of Megacity 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Brinkhoff population (2010) 10,400,000
Population 7,245,700 8,711,000 10,467,400
Population growth rate 2001-11 44.46
 GDP (millions)  248,249 581,356 1,150,553  Chinese yuan 
 >GDP (PPP adjusted US dollars, millions)  75,227 166,102 273,941
 *10-year growth rate in GDP 2001 to 2011 (%)  264.15
Formal gov't for metro area (yes/no)? Y
> 1 coordinating bodies (yes/no)? Y
PART 2:  Biophysical Characteristics 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Land area (km2) 2,020.00
Urbanized area (km2) 1,991.64
Heating degree days 377
Cooling degree days 685
Annnual precipitation (mm) 1,269.70
Annual solar radiation (k Wh/m2) 2,054.40
Building gross floor area (m2) - total 28,759,800 floor space under construction
>total per capita
>residential 19,656,300
>residential per capita
>commercial & institutional 4,699,300
>industrial 4,404,200
PART 3:  Urban Metabolism 2001 2006 2011 Comments
Energy (Stationary)
Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable 0.04 4.07
Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid 21,228.71 48,720.38 69,601.98
Electrical line losses (GWh) 1,333.16 3,059.64 4,371.00
*Total electricity consumption (GWh) 21,228.71 48,720.42 69,606.05
*Total electricity consumption (TJ) 76,423.36 175,393.51 250,581.78
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 227.89
Natural gas (TJ) 18,682.65
Fuel oil (TJ) 16,244.93 3,143.21
Coal (TJ) 961.41 1,887.66
Biomass/biofuels (TJ)
Other 5,774.56 12,089.04 crude oil
164.27 226.43 kerosene
3,065.84 2,927.06 LPG
*Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) 26,211.01 0.00 38,956.05
*Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ) 8,531.37
Energy (Mobile)
Gasoline (TJ) 6,189.49 35,264.90
Diesel (TJ) 53,642.91 32,710.85
Jet fuel (TJ) 2,924.10 2,198.88 15,897.53 includes marine fuel; see survey notes
Marine fuel (TJ)
Other
*Total energy consumption (transportation) excl. marine/jet fuel (TJ) 59,832.40 0.00 67,975.75
*10-year growth rate 13.61
*Total energy consumption (stationary + mobile) (TJ) 162,466.77 175,393.51 357,513.58
*2011 total 357,513.58
*2006 total 175,393.51
**2001 total 162,466.77
*10-year growth rate 2001-2011 (%) 120.05
Water
Consumption (ML) -- excluding line losses 1,287,860.00 1,731,640.00 1,954,910
Line losses (ML) 148,921.00 45,079.20 50,355.00
>Line losses as a percentage of consumption (%) 11.6% 2.6% 2.6%
*Total water consumption (ML) excluding line losses 1,287,860.00 1,731,640.00 1,954,910
*Total water consumption (ML) including line losses 1,436,781.00 1,776,719.20 2,005,265
Production (ML) 1,287,860.00 1,731,640.00 1,954,910
Production - surface water (ML) 1,228,460.00 1,675,810.00 1,852,900
Production - ground water (ML) 59,030.00 55,410.00 9,910.00
*10-year growth rate in water consumption 2001-2011 (%) 51.80
Wastewater
Volume (ML) 865,450.00 1,241,000.00 1,359,000
Loading (kt BOD) 129.82 186.15 203.85
Waste
Solid waste disposal - land (Kt) 2,975.67 2,577.00 2,795.70
Waste incineration (Kt) 868.34 752.00 1,781.60
*Total solid waste disposal (kt) 3,844.01 3,329.00 4,577.30
*10-year growth rate in solid waste disposal 2001-2011 (%) 19.08
Electricity sources
Coal (%) 68.55 78.97 77.8
Oil (%) 19.4 2.43 0.3
Natural gas (%) 3.34 0.48 1.6
Hydropower (%) 8.17 15.9 17.2
Nuclear (%) 0.54 2.13 1.8
Off-site wind (%) 0 0.09 1.3 includes solar
Off-site solar (%)
Other
GHG emissions factor (t CO2e / GWh) 625.38 616.78 622.31
Electricity consumption (2011)
residential (%) 12.85
commercial/institutional (%) 22.55
industrial (%) 60.15
transportation (%) 2.17
other
Stationary energy consumption (2011)
residential (%) 12.9
commercial/institutional (%) 9.0
industrial (%) 63.9
other
Materials (2011)
Building materials
Cement
>net import (Kt) unknown
>production (Kt) 115,920.72
>consumption (Kt) 130,462.24
Steel
>net import (Kt) 16.25
>production (Kt) 413.41
>consumption (Kt) unknown
Other
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
Food
>net import (Kt) unknown
>production (Kt) 161.72
>consumption (Kt) unknown
Other
>net import (Kt)
>production (Kt)
>consumption (Kt)
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