The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) follows common traits of most affluent cities with a disproportionate contribution to climate change, nitrogen cycle, change in land use and fresh water consumption, as highlighted in Figure 1 and Table 1. Of the 44,838 species assessed in the IUCN ‘Red List’ , 16,928 are listed as threatened, of which 180 are local to Ontario, Canada, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry . Canada’s ecological footprint is used to estimate biodiversity loss in Toronto, as these numbers are reported at country scale in the WWF’s 2014 Living Planet Report . Values are expected to be further refined with additional consideration for activities such as migratory bird loss in Toronto (caused by birds striking high-rise buildings at night).
Figure 1: Physical Science: Toronto vs. Global Condition
Figure 2 and Table 2 highlight Toronto’s relative strength in social boundaries. On average, compared to the global values, Toronto has higher opportunities for youth, a larger per capita economy, full energy access and higher public safety and security indicators.
 IUCN, 2014, Iucn Red List of Threatened Species, IUCN Global Species Programme Red List Unit, August 19, 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/summary-statistics#Tables_1_2
 Jason Travers, 2009, Species at Risk Stewardship Fund Projects in the Greater Toronto Area, Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, August 19, 2014, http://news.ontario.ca/mnr/en/2009/07/species-at-risk-stewardship-fund-projects-in-the-greater-toronto-area.html
 WWF, 2014, Living Planet Report 2014, World Wide Fund (WWF), Switzerland.